Mountains form over millions of years. They are found throughout the world. They come in many different shapes, types, and sizes. A mountain is any landmass higher and steeper than a hill. Many geographers agree that mountains are a minimum of two thousand feet high and have a slope that’s greater than two degrees. Does earth need the mountains? Let’s discover the answer!
Why do we have mountains?
Mountains are majestic doors that are essential components of geography. The majority of the earth’s surface is water, and 90 percent is salted, not drinkable. Only three percent of the world’s water is freshwater. Now, about 60 to 80 percent of this freshwater comes from the mountains. That’s why they are nature’s water. Always mountains absorb a huge amount of rainwater, preventing erosion, landslides, and rockfalls. Mountains are like safety rules for the people living there as they reduce rapidly moving winds.
It is the reason that mountainous countries do not suffer from hurricanes or tornadoes. Mountains capture the clouds, making clouds tend to go high in the sky, cool down. And Griselle mountains provide a huge amount of minerals that are vital for us as well. They are a good source of food and medicine. Around half of the world’s population depends on mountains for water, food, and energy.
- Without mountains, the earth will be a desert, and we can not survive properly. To maintain natural balance and keep rigidity earth have plenty of mountains.
Mountain belts extend for hundreds, even thousands of kilometers, and their structures penetrate deep into the earth. So their size and age make their formation difficult to understand. French geologist Jacques Malavika build sand models that mimic mountain belts and allow scientists to study this complex process. It represents natural phenomena that happen over many tens of millions of years.
Sand is an excellent material for simulating rock formation. The sediments and the continental crust have different mechanical properties. Geologists mix the sand grains with a finer powder, which increases the sand’s resistance to deformation. Thus, they have heterogeneous material made up of more resistant layers and less resistant layers.
Mountain belts occur when continents collide. As one plate subduct or dives beneath the other, the ocean basin closes. The continental crust, which is lighter than oceanic crust, cannot be subducted. Instead, as the continents collide, the crust thickens and is forced up. This process happens with the mountains. That’s why the earth has many mountains. One crucial factor not accounted for in this model is erosion. Erosion exposes the deformed rocks that were once deeply buried in the mountain belt. The ocean basin has been trapped between the two continents marking their original boundary. These two are in mountain belts.
Different types of mountains on earth
There are many types of mountains, and they’re classified by how they form. Volcanic and Dome mountains form by the molten rock or magma found beneath the Earth’s crust.
Volcanic mountains occur when erupting. The magma cools and hardens, forming a cone shape down. Many volcanic mountains occur at convergent boundaries. Most of the Earth’s active volcanoes are concentrated around the edge of the Pacific Ocean. This area is known as the Ring of Fire. Mount Griggs in Alaska is an example. It is located on the northern rim of the Pacific plate. Japan’s Mount Fuji is a famous volcanic mountain, while the Adirondacks and the eastern US are well-known dome mountains.
Fold mountains form when the plates that make up the Earth’s crust collide or pass over the top of one another, causing the crust to unfold. The Rocky Mountains in the North American West and Europe’s Alps are both fold mountains.
Block mountains create when pressure on giant cracks in the Earth’s crust or faults causes slabs of rock to tilt upward and sometimes stacked on top of one another. When tension causes the lithosphere to break into normal faults at normal faults, the lithosphere drops down. The pieces left standing form fault-block mountains, the Teton mountains, or an example in the Sierra Nevada.
America’s Sierra Nevada Mountains are the Black Mountains, the highest mountain on earth as Mt. Everest in the Himalayan Mountains. Its peak reached its twenty-nine thousand twenty-nine feet above sea level and is still growing if you measure up mountains might by its area. Hawaii’s volcanic Mauna Loa is the world’s largest at about seventy-five miles across.
Learn more: The Rain Shadow Effect By Mountain Diagram