A typhoon is a huge storm with a strong wind speed in tropical areas. It is also known as a tropical storm. Most typhoons strike in the northern part of the Philippines. It is one of the deadly disasters that happens several times yearly and creates a huge environmental change. Also, it keeps the temperature and heat at an equilibrium state.
The formation of typhoons is a natural phenomenon. The earth uses it to attain balance or equilibrium. Transferring energy from the equator to older parts of the earth. Various names call them. In the Northwest Pacific, we call them typhoons. In the Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific, they’re called cyclones. And in the Atlantic, they’re called hurricanes. They form within the Intertropical Convergence Zone or the ITCZ.
What causes a typhoon?
The formation of a typhoon is similar to that of a cyclone or hurricane, but it occurs in the western Pacific region. Here are the key factors that cause the formation of a typhoon:
Warm Ocean Waters: Typhoons require warm ocean waters with temperatures typically above 26.5°C (80°F) to provide the necessary energy for their formation. The warm waters evaporate, releasing moisture into the atmosphere.
Moisture and Convection: As the warm ocean water evaporates, it creates a moist and unstable atmosphere. The moisture-laden air rises rapidly due to convection, forming an area of low pressure at the surface.
Coriolis Effect: The rotation of the Earth causes the Coriolis effect, which deflects moving air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. This effect is crucial for the development and rotation of typhoons.
Low-Pressure System: The rising warm air creates a region of low atmospheric pressure near the surface. Air from the surrounding areas with higher pressure flows towards this low-pressure region.
Formation of a Tropical Depression: If the low-pressure system becomes more organized and sustains itself for an extended period, it can develop into a tropical depression. The depression is characterized by a closed circulation of winds and maximum sustained winds of up to 61 km/h (38 mph).
Tropical Storm Formation: When the sustained winds in the tropical depression reach speeds between 61 km/h (38 mph) and 119 km/h (74 mph), it is classified as a tropical storm. At this stage, the storm is given a name.
Typhoon Formation: If the tropical storm continues to intensify and the sustained winds exceed 119 km/h (74 mph), it is then classified as a typhoon. The storm develops a distinct eye at the center, surrounded by a spiraling band of thunderstorms.
Typhoons are a mature tropical system. High-energy cosmic neutrinos are hitting on earth. Neutrinos are elementary particles like electrons but with no charge and almost no mass. They can pass through and remain unaffected by everything. The source of these super high-energy cosmic neutrinos that come from billions of light-years away is more of a mystery. They pass at incredible speeds through certain substances they can polarize, like water. Then It can create typhoons with warm water.
Some particular ingredients or factors came together to make typhoons. They are given below.
Warm water: The typhoon’s first ingredient is warm water, typically needed at about 27 degrees Celsius or 80 degrees Fahrenheit. The warmer it gets, the more latent heat will go into the system, and the stronger it will be a tropical storm. So, in short, the water temperature is a pretty important aspect of these tropical systems.
Cyclone formation: Cyclonic circulation at the storm’s base is also needed. It’s pretty impossible to have a cyclonic storm without that low-level circulation. There are several ways to do this, a tropical wave forming around the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Humidity: It is also another essential aspect. A lot of moisture in the atmosphere creates a tropical system. The atmosphere’s latent heat drops tremendous rain since it is a warm-core low end with moisture.
Coriolis force: The thumb rule of thought is usually 10 degrees north or higher to develop a tropical system.
Exhaust: These tropical systems are cyclonic at their base but antipsychotic in the upper atmosphere, which allows them to move away from the center of circulation. In the upper atmosphere, it will loosen up, pushing away from that center of circulation. So anti cyclonic force is needed for an upper-level ridge or high-pressure aloft.
Vertical wind shear: Storms in higher latitudes can spin up and become extra severe. But tropical systems are much like a chimney. A little wind shear or a cold front from the north allows the storms to break apart.
Typhoons form like how ordinary ring bells form. They start by evaporating water molecules from the ocean because this moist air is warm. They travel upwards until they meet with cold air. At this point, they start to condense and form clouds resulting in rain showers. The clouds dissipate and vanish after precipitation is completed. With a very active system, clouds can move together into large clusters of thunderstorms. These clusters of clouds are areas of low pressure in the atmosphere.
Combined with warm ocean waters, typically over 26 degrees Celsius, they joined two key ingredients in transforming ordinary clouds into deadly typhoons. The earth’s rotation causes the strengthening system to spin counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.
Converging winds also have warm, moist air from the ocean of warranties and contribute to typhoon circulation. With an organized circulation, the low-pressure area becomes a tropical depression. At the tropical depression drift, it may encounter areas of the ocean where it is hot. It will further drive the increase of its circulation, transforming it into a typhoon.
When conditions are ideal, the system starts to rotate even faster, and the typhoon’s eye is now on a prayer center. When wind speeds top 25 knots, about 30 miles per hour, the center issues its First Alert. A super typhoon with sustained wind speeds above fifty miles an hour is as destructive as the most notorious killer hurricanes like Katrina.
Difference between Hurricane and Typhoon
What’s the difference between a hurricane and a typhoon? They’re both storms that get names. The super typhoon hitting Asia is named Heian or Yolanda. The main difference between a hurricane and a typhoon is where the storm occurs. According to NOAA, hurricanes form in the northern Atlantic, northeastern Pacific, and South Pacific.
Typhoons form in the northwestern Pacific. All storms share begin as tropical storms. Each begins over warm oceans with high air, moisture, and wind levels. If the conditions persist, these spinning storms will grow and reach sustained internal wind speeds of 74 miles an hour. They can bring torrential rain, flooding, and other hallmarks of a big storm.
The location of the typhoon, cyclone, or hurricane determines the direction it spins. A typhoon doesn’t mean it will spin in a specific direction, like a hurricane. Storms can spin either way. All storms form in the northern hemisphere and spin counterclockwise. At the same time, those forming in the southern hemisphere spin clockwise.
However, the super typhoon that’s a real scientific thing. It ranks on that side of the world, meaning a sustained surface wind of at least 150 miles an hour high. In the Atlantic, they typically appear from June to November. But the Pacific typhoon can happen anywhere from May to December. There may be as many as 30 in a year.
Typhoons hit the headlines when they affect countries like Japan and Southeast Asia. On the other hand, Hurricanes hit the headlines when they wreak their damage across the Caribbean and parts of the southeastern USA. Most begin life thousands of miles away in the Atlantic, close to northwest Africa.
Hurricanes draw their energy from warm seas and can only develop at 26 degrees Celsius. They can only develop into significant storms when the sea temperature is 28 degrees Celsius, like a warm bath. It requires two elements to form around developing wave patterns or thunderstorms, neither of which are found in high-pressure areas where descending air tends to stabilize the atmosphere.
Other limitations include wind patterns in the upper atmosphere and the force of the earth’s rotation, meaning that hurricanes can only develop around a narrow band between 8 and 20 degrees north of the Equator. That may seem like a tiny area, but it’s where the East Lee trade winds converge, and there’s a plentiful supply of moisture. So it’s a prime location for developing thunderstorms and the birthplace of most hurricanes.
Safety precautions during and after Typhoon
What to do during the typhoon and after the typhoons? Here are tips to help you cope with any disturbance like a typhoon.
- Stock up on emergency supplies before a typhoon comes.
- Stock up on food, water, medicine, radios, and flashlights.
- Download valuable applications to your phone, such as the news app.
- Don’t forget to charge your phone and prepare additional power banks fully.
- Move electrical appliances to a safe place. Electrical appliances and leads should be moved indoors and kept away from windows.
- Ensure the equipment has not suffered any water damage before using it again.
- Turning off air conditioners exposed to strong winds can cause the motor of an air conditioner to run in the reverse direction. Switch off any air conditioners exposed to strong winds to prevent motor failure.
- Check lifts and carry out improvement works where needed.
- Typhoons can cause voltage dips, and elevators may be affected. Building managers should consider engaging contractors to inspect before typhoons and do any necessary improvement work.
- Evacuate high-risk areas and unplug electricity before leaving. People in areas at risk of flooding should consider a temporary evacuation. Remember to lock the doors and windows and turn off the main power switch to avoid electrical incidents.
- Stay calm during power outages. During a power outage, switch off all large appliances, report to the building management office, and wait patiently for engineers to do repairs. Leave one light on so you will know when power has been restored.
- Use flashlights for emergency lighting. Candles can cause fires, so use flashlights only for emergency lighting in a power outage event.
- Keep fridge doors closed. During a power outage, an unopened refrigerator will keep food cold for around 4 hours. A full freezer will maintain its temperature for about two days.
- Stay away from damaged equipment.
After a typhoon, emergency teams will work hard to restore power. Restoring electricity may take longer in areas where the damage is severe, or access roads are blocked by fallen trees or flooding. In these situations, stay calm and listen to news bulletins. Do not touch damaged electrical equipment; report power outages to power companies. Engineers will arrive as soon as logistically possible. Stay calm and stay safe in the coming typhoon season.
Chris Landsea. “Subject: F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones, and who is responsible for forecasting there?”. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres: D06108.
“What is the difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon?”. OCEAN FACTS. National Ocean Service.
Glossary of Meteorology. “Typhoon.” American Meteorological Society.
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