Science Facts

How Earth Was Born? – Evolution Of Earth Step By Step

Earth Formation

The formation of the earth is related to the formation of the solar system. The gases that form the solar system gradually started shrinking. Increasingly more matter gathered in the center while the temperature was constantly increasing. The Sun formed from this condensed molecular cloud of dust.

Due to rapid rotation, the rest of the cloud scattered and flattened into an orbiting protoplanetary disc around the Sun. The particles of dust in the protoplanetary disc stuck together electrostatically. When these clumps of dust reached kilometers in size, they began to collapse under their gravity, forming protoplanets.

The story of the earth’s spin goes back to the origin of the solar system. About 4.5 billion years ago, the solar system started as a cloud of gas and dust. This gas and dust clump together to form the Sun in the various planets. In the way, the Aerith crew was to cannibalize smaller clumps that were also growing. So if you were sitting on the surface of the earth, you would see a bombardment of particles.

It turns out this bombardment which also gave the earth its spin. The earth is sitting out in space. All these particles bombard it. It’s going to have some rotation. So that’s where the rotation of the earth comes from.

How earth was born?

For many centuries humanity has wrestled with the riddle of how history began. Today scientists take their starting point to be the Big Bang which occurred around 14 billion years ago. The early universe was a place of high energy, high temperatures, and processes transforming matter’s physical forces and chemical elements into their current form. When that concerns us, this process of creation had been underway for almost 9 billion years. Back then, in the corner of the universe on the outskirts of the Milky Way, important events were starting to unfold. The ground was being prepared for the birth of our planet.

Sun creation

About 4.6 billion years ago, an enormous cloud of gas and dust called solar nebula swirled in the Milky Way galaxy. A new solar system is born by the new sun. A process known as the conservation of angular momentum gravity collapses the cloud turning it into a flattened spinning disk. The powerful gravity pulls most of the gas into the center of the disk, and this gas gradually condenses, coalesces, and ultimately forms the Sun.

After the Sun ignited, most of the material around it had flattened into a disk of gas and dust. A dense swarm of objects clumps together to form what astronomers call “planetesimals.” Some planets formed the planets together by gravity, while others became asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets. As the planets accreted, they carved out gaps in the disk, but the Solar System remained quite cluttered.

Leftover gas and dust swirl around and slowly begin clumping together. The strong solar winds blast outward from the Sun blowing lighter materials like hydrogen and helium far out. Heavier material like dust and rocks resists the solar wind and remains close to the center. It’s a heavy material that begins clumping together, eventually forming the prototypes of the inner rocky planets, including planet Earth. Earth’s dense rocky core forms first. Heavy materials like iron and nickel gravitate to the center, whereas lighter materials drift outside, eventually forming the Earth’s crust.

Moon creation

Over millions of years, the new earth begins trapping stray gas and its powerful gravity. And this gas eventually becomes our sacred life-saving atmosphere. But suddenly, around 1 billion years after the earth is formed via a large Mars-sized body floating freely in the new solar system crashes into Earth. It caused near-catastrophic damage.

Some pieces become trapped in the Earth’s gravity, ultimately becoming the moon. Today comets are rare in the inner solar system, only appearing a few times every several decades. But during the early primordial times, comets were very abundant throughout the solar system as a whole.

Formation of earth

One of our galaxy’s spiral arms exploded amid a cloud of interstellar gas and ice dust. The blasts from these explosions shook loose a gigantic cloud of gas and dust. It was launching a process that would lead to the formation of a new star system. The Sun and its entire retinue of planets were formed. Distant clouds of hydrogen and helium gave birth to the gas giants and solid elements silicon, magnesium, iron, and nickel to the planets closer to the Sun. Then around four and a half billion years ago, the earth appeared.

The young-earth was subject to frequent blows from other celestial bodies. These meteorites and comets heated the Earth’s surface. A collision with the planet Thea led to the moon’s creation, the natural cosmic satellite.

  • Since the Big Bang, the universe has been drifting and expanding. The birth and death of stars leave an aftermath of galaxies, planets, and even living organisms.

It includes the Sun, planets, and solar system. At the center, the Sunswept in more minor elements like hydrogen and helium. Farther away, heavier elements formed planets. Based on the core accretion model, gravity was the driver of Khaleesi Earth from a cloud of dust. Though the earth was neatly orbiting the Sun as a rocky mass 4.5 billion years ago, no organism could survive there.

This was how the first lines were written in the rich history of the third planet. It is approximately a third as old as the universe itself. The subsequent history of the earth was spun by the creator and by evolution.

Earth axis evolution

Three thousand years from today, the axis of rotation will have moved more than one-ninth of a full cycle. Therefore, in 13,000 years, the seasons’ occurrence will be the opposite of this year. After 26 thousand years, the axis of rotation will have completed a full cycle, and the seasons in the Earth’s orbit will start over. With the stars, the Earth’s axis currently points toward the star Polaris. Due to the axis of rotation, the Earth’s axis will be pointing somewhere near the star Vega in 13,000 years.

The gravitational effects of other planets caused the ellipse of orbit to spin around the Sun slowly. It takes about 112 thousand years for the ellipse to revolve once relative to fixed stars. It takes about 21,000 years for the Solstice to go from aphelion to aphelion. The perihelion dates and the aphelion advance each year on this cycle an average of one day for 58 years. The eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit is how round or how oval the orbit’s shape is.

  • The angle the Earth’s rotational axis makes with its orbital plane. It is currently about 23.4 degrees and is declining.

This tilt varies from 22.1 degrees to 24.5 degrees. It makes one complete tilt and back every forty-one thousand years. This change in tilt is directly related to ice ages on earth. The last maximum tilt occurred in 8700 BC, and the following minimum tilt will happen in 11800 AD.

The inclination of Earth’s orbit drifts up and down relative to the present orbit, with the cycle having a period of about 70,000 years. And the orbit also moves relative to the orbits of other planets as well. By calculating the plane of unchanged total angular momentum of the solar system, we can define the orbital plane called the invariable plane. It is approximately the orbital plane of Jupiter. The inclination of the Earth’s orbit has a 100 thousand-year cycle relative to the invariable plane. This 100 thousand year cycle closely matches the 100 thousand year pattern of ice ages.

Atmosphere & Earth’s layer creation

Radiation from the recent supernova kept the planet extremely hot on its surface. Molten and oxygen were non-existent. Plus, incredibly massive meteorites and asteroids frequently slammed onto the surface. The earth got so hot, and it began melting. Heavier material sank to the bottom lighter stuff rose to the top. Some elements evaporated. This transformation created the Earth’s layered core and mantle crust atmosphere, and magnetic field. Without it, the earth would be blasted by harmful rays from the Sun.

In the late Hadean Eon, the earth was still in its late bombardment stage. There was no life. Temperatures are extremely hot with frequent volcanic activity and hellish environments. The atmosphere is nebular, possibly early oceans or bodies of liquid water. The moon is formed around this time, probably due to a protoplanet’s collision with Earth. Also, there’s reason to believe that these collisions could have sparked the chemical building blocks for life DNA. Eventually, the climate on earth became more stable. Instead of a molten state, the earth started to cool down.

Life creation

Water vapor condensed to form oceans, and the earth cooled down enough to create continents. Vale bara became Earth’s first supercontinent. Photosynthetic organisms appeared between 3.2 and 2.4 billion years ago and began enriching the atmosphere with oxygen. Single-celled organisms consumed the sun’s energy. As a waste product, these cyanobacteria eventually filled the oceans and atmosphere with oxygen. Earth now had an oxygenated atmosphere for new life to flourish, but it wasn’t cyanobacteria. Oxygen was toxic for them. Much like on Earth probably died out as its levels rose and were known as the oxygen catastrophe.

Imagine eight dominant species polluting the planet until extinction-resistant forms survived and thrived. And some developed the ability to use oxygen to increase their metabolism and obtain more energy from the same food. At this time, methane was more abundant in the atmosphere. One thing that methane did very well was trap heat in the atmosphere. It’s one of the most efficient greenhouse gases.

So when oxygen is combined with methane, it produced carbon dioxide. All of a sudden, the greenhouse effect wasn’t as strong. As a result, the whole planet froze. It was snowball earth for the next 300 million years as oxygen filled the atmosphere. Earth’s ozone layer thickened.

Before the presence of ozone, layer life was restricted to shallow water. Because water shielded harmful radiation, that’s where life existed. Eventually, a thicker ozone layer enabled life to diversify on land.

  • About 541 million years ago, hard-shelled invertebrates originated in the oceans, and life got more diverse from there.

Age of fish

When thousands of fish species arose, plants and fungi were the first to venture out of the water. Some fish stayed close to land and gradually adapted to life there, simultaneously developing lungs.

Amphibians were the first vertebrates to make the move tool. And the transition to life on land benefitted these creatures because there were no predators, to begin with, and food was plentiful. That was the start of the Age of amphibians. Then 250 million years ago was the Permian extinction, which caused 95% of all living species.

Age of dinosaur

When Earth’s climate became hotter, and drier rainforests collapsed, triggering the age of reptiles. It was unanimously depicted by tyrannosaurus rex locked in eternal conflict with the mortal enemy because reptiles evolved to dryland conditions. They gained a unique ecological advantage. Also notable is that Pangaea existed as one supercontinent in this area. Dinosaurs lived on one supercontinent. Plate tectonics worthy mechanism that eventually tore continents apart. Don’t forget that dinosaurs existed for 160 million years. So continental drift gradually drifted dinosaurs apart.

Mammal Evolution

From between the feet of stomping dinosaurs, ratty animals scurry about cue an asteroid impact, and the age of mammals begins. Mammals evolved from mammal-like reptiles called therapsids about 200 million years ago. And birds from small theropod dinosaurs about 150 million years ago. This evolution of both mammals and birds accelerated after the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

A six-mile-wide asteroid struck earth just off the Yucatan Peninsula. This ejected vast quantities of particulate matter and vapor into the air that occluded sunlight inhibiting photosynthesis. Seventy-five percent of all life, including the non-avian dinosaurs, became extinct.

The first true mammals evolved in the shadows of dinosaurs and other large arcus ores. When dinosaurs roamed the earth, mammals were tiny and were probably nocturnal to escape predation. And because dinosaurs went extinct, mammals emerged as the largest land animals at the time. Creatures like ambulocetus took the oceans to eventually evolve into whales, whereas some creatures like primates took to the trees.

Then just several million years ago, we believe that human life began to evolve. Apes remained in trees for their primary food source. Eventually, grass began to spread in places like the African savanna, and there were fewer trees. This forced Apes to walk to new food sources. With their heads above the grass to see predators, apes evolved by walking on two legs. It also helped to have their hands available when they were traveling.

Brain size increased rapidly, and by two million years ago, the first animals classified in the genus Homo had appeared. They were known for sharpening objects with silicon rocks. They began to master the use of their hands and fingers. In the Stone Age, early humans had fire under control.

It enabled them to cook their food, giving them more calories. Modern humans Homo sapiens learned to make more complex sounds and share information in groups. They are believed to have originated around 200,000 years ago or earlier in Africa. The oldest fossils date back to around 160 thousand years ago. And since then, humans have struggled to survive.


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Sources:

“Age of the Earth.” U.S. Geological Survey.
Dalrymple, G. Brent. “The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved.” Special Publications, Geological Society of London.
Claude J.; Bernard & Hamelin, Bruno. “Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle characteristics.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
Schopf, J. William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; . “Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils.” Precambrian Research.
Pearlman, Jonathan. “Oldest signs of life on Earth found.” The Daily Telegraph.

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