The formation of the earth is related to the solar system’s formation. The gases that form the solar system gradually started shrinking. Increasingly more matter gathered in the center while the temperature was constantly increasing. The Sun formed from this condensed molecular cloud of dust.
Due to rapid rotation, the rest of the cloud scattered and flattened into an orbiting protoplanetary disc around the Sun. The particles of dust in the protoplanetary disc stuck together electrostatically. When these clumps of dust reached kilometers in size, they began to collapse under their gravity, forming protoplanets.
The story of the earth’s spin goes back to the solar system’s origin. About 4.5 billion years ago, the solar system started as a cloud of gas and dust. This gas and dust clump together to form the Sun on the various planets. On the way, the Aerith crew was to cannibalize smaller clumps that were also growing. So if you were sitting on the earth’s surface, you would see a bombardment of particles.
It turns out this bombardment which also gave the earth its spin. The Earth is sitting out in space. All these particles bombard it. It’s going to have some rotation. So that’s where the rotation of the earth comes from.
How Was Earth Born?
For many centuries humanity has wrestled with the riddle of how history began. Today scientists take their starting point to be the Big Bang which occurred around 14 billion years ago. The early universe was a place of high energy, temperatures, and processes transforming matter’s physical forces and chemical elements into their current form.
This creation process has been underway for almost 9 billion years, which concerns us. Back then, essential events were starting to unfold in the corner of the universe on the outskirts of the Milky Way. The ground was being prepared for the birth of our planet.
The birth of Earth dates back approximately 4.6 billion years, and it is believed to have formed through a process known as accretion. Here’s a brief overview of how Earth was born:
Nebula: The story begins with a vast cloud of gas and dust called a nebula. Nebulas are remnants of previous supernova explosions, composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, with traces of other elements.
Gravitational Collapse: Some external force, such as a nearby supernova explosion or the shockwave from a passing star, caused the nebula to collapse under its gravity. This collapse led to the formation of a spinning disk called the protoplanetary disk.
Protoplanetary Disk: Within the protoplanetary disk, matter comes together due to gravity’s force. Small particles collided and stuck together, forming larger bodies called planetesimals.
Planetesimal Accretion: Over time, planetesimals continued to collide and accrete, growing larger and larger. Through this accretion process, protoplanets, which were still smaller than the present-day Earth, began to form.
Differentiation: As these protoplanets grew, their interiors heated up due to the energy from the collisions and the decay of radioactive isotopes. The heat led to the melting and differentiation of the protoplanets, with denser materials sinking toward the core and lighter materials rising to the surface.
Formation of the Moon: Around 4.5 billion years ago, a Mars-sized object called Theia collided with the young Earth in a catastrophic event called the Giant Impact. The collision ejected significant material into space, eventually coalescing to form the Moon.
Cooling and Solidification: Over time, the Earth’s surface cooled, allowing the formation of a solid crust. Water vapor in the atmosphere condensed and formed oceans, and volcanic activity released gases that contributed to the development of the early atmosphere.
Early Earth: The early Earth was a hostile place with frequent volcanic activity, intense meteorite bombardment, and an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen. Over millions of years, the atmosphere gradually changed as volcanic gases, water, and biological processes transformed it into the composition we know today.
About 4.6 billion years ago, an enormous cloud of gas and dust called solar nebula swirled in the Milky Way galaxy. A new solar system is born by the new sun. A process known as the conservation of angular momentum gravity collapses the cloud turning it into a flattened spinning disk. The powerful gravity pulls most of the gas into the center of the disk, and this gas gradually condenses, coalesces, and ultimately forms the Sun.
After the Sun ignited, most of the material around it had flattened into a disk of gas and dust. A dense swarm of objects clumps together to form what astronomers call “planetesimals.” Some planets were formed by gravity, while others became asteroids, comets, and dwarf planets. As the planets accreted, they carved out gaps in the disk, but the Solar System remained quite cluttered.
Leftover gas and dust swirl around and slowly begin clumping together. The strong solar winds blast outward from the sun, blowing lighter materials like hydrogen and helium. Heavier material like dust and rocks resists the solar wind and remains close to the center.
It’s a heavy material that begins clumping together, eventually forming the prototypes of the inner rocky planets, including Earth. Earth’s dense rocky core forms first. Heavy materials like iron and nickel gravitate to the center, whereas lighter materials drift outside, forming Earth’s crust.
Over millions of years, the new earth begins trapping stray gas and its powerful gravity. This gas eventually becomes our sacred life-saving atmosphere. But suddenly, around 1 billion years after the earth is formed, a large Mars-sized body floating freely in the new solar system crashes into Earth. It caused near-catastrophic damage.
Some pieces become trapped in the Earth’s gravity, ultimately becoming the moon. Comets are rare in the inner solar system, only appearing a few times every several decades. But during the early primordial times, comets were abundant throughout the whole solar system.
Formation of earth
One of our galaxy’s spiral arms exploded amid an interstellar gas and ice dust cloud. The blasts from these explosions shook loose a gigantic cloud of gas and dust. It was launching a process that would form a new star system.
The Sun and its entire retinue of planets were formed. Distant clouds of hydrogen and helium gave birth to the gas giants and solid elements silicon, magnesium, iron, and nickel to the planets closer to the Sun. Then around four and a half billion years ago, the earth appeared.
The young earth was subject to frequent blows from other celestial bodies. These meteorites and comets heated the Earth’s surface. A collision with the planet Thea led to the moon’s creation, the natural cosmic satellite.
- Since the Big Bang, the universe has been drifting and expanding. The birth and death of stars leave an aftermath of galaxies, planets, and even living organisms.
It includes the Sun, planets, and solar system. The Sunswept in more minor elements like hydrogen and helium at the center. Farther away, heavier elements formed planets. Gravity was Khaleesi Earth’s driver from a dust cloud based on the core accretion model. Though the earth was neatly orbiting the Sun as a rocky mass 4.5 billion years ago, no organism could survive there.
It was how the first lines were written in the rich history of the third planet. It is approximately a third as old as the universe itself. The creator and evolution spun the subsequent history of the earth.
Earth axis evolution
Three thousand years from today, the axis of rotation will have moved more than one-ninth of a full cycle. Therefore, in 13,000 years, the seasons’ occurrence will be the opposite of this year. After 26 thousand years, the axis of rotation will have completed a full cycle, and the seasons in the Earth’s orbit will start over. The Earth’s axis currently points toward the star Polaris with the stars. Due to the axis of rotation, the Earth’s axis will be pointing somewhere near the star Vega in 13,000 years.
The gravitational effects of other planets caused the ellipse of orbit to spin around the Sun slowly. The ellipse takes 112 thousand years to revolve relative to fixed stars. The Solstice takes about 21,000 years to go from aphelion to aphelion. The perihelion dates and the aphelion advance each year on this cycle for an average of one day for 58 years. The eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit is how round or how oval the orbit’s shape is.
- The angle the Earth’s rotational axis makes with its orbital plane. It is currently about 23.4 degrees and is declining.
This tilt varies from 22.1 degrees to 24.5 degrees. It makes one complete tilt and back every forty-one thousand years. This change in tilt is directly related to ice ages on Earth. The last maximum tilt occurred in 8700 BC; the following minimum tilt will happen in 11800 AD.
The inclination of Earth’s orbit drifts up and down relative to the present orbit, with the cycle having about 70,000 years. The orbit also moves relative to the orbits of other planets as well. By calculating the plane of unchanged total angular momentum of the solar system, we can define the orbital plane called the invariable plane.
It is approximately the orbital plane of Jupiter. The inclination of the Earth’s orbit has a 100-thousand-year cycle relative to the invariable plane. This 100 thousand-year cycle closely matches the 100 thousand-year patterns of ice ages.
Atmosphere & Earth’s layer creation
Radiation from the recent supernova kept the planet extremely hot on its surface. Molten and oxygen were non-existent. Plus, incredibly massive meteorites and asteroids frequently slammed onto the surface. The earth got so hot, and it began melting.
Heavier material sank to the bottom lighter stuff rose to the top. Some elements evaporated. This transformation created the Earth’s layered core, mantle crust atmosphere, and magnetic field. Without it, the earth would be blasted by harmful rays from the Sun.
The earth was still in its late bombardment stage in the late Hadean Eon. There was no life. Temperatures are extremely hot, with frequent volcanic activity and hellish environments. The atmosphere is nebular, possibly early oceans or bodies of liquid water.
The moon formed around this time, probably due to a protoplanet’s collision with Earth. Also, there’s reason to believe these collisions could have sparked the chemical building blocks for life DNA. Eventually, the climate on Earth became more stable. Instead of a molten state, the earth started to cool down.
Water vapor condenses to form oceans, and the earth cools down enough to create continents. Vale bara became Earth’s first supercontinent. Photosynthetic organisms appeared between 3.2 and 2.4 billion years ago and began enriching the atmosphere with oxygen.
Single-celled organisms consumed the sun’s energy. These cyanobacteria eventually filled the oceans and atmosphere with oxygen as a waste product. Earth now had an oxygenated atmosphere for new life to flourish, but it wasn’t cyanobacteria. Oxygen was toxic for them. Much like on Earth probably died out as its levels rose, known as the oxygen catastrophe.
Imagine eight dominant species polluting the planet until extinction-resistant forms survive and thrive. Some developed the ability to use oxygen to increase their metabolism and obtain more energy from the same food. At this time, methane was more abundant in the atmosphere. One thing that methane did very well was trap heat in the atmosphere. It’s one of the most efficient greenhouse gases.
So when oxygen is combined with methane, it produces carbon dioxide. All of a sudden, the greenhouse effect wasn’t as strong. As a result, the whole planet froze. For the next 300 million years, snowball Earth has oxygen-filled the atmosphere. Earth’s ozone layer thickens.
Before the presence of ozone, layer life was restricted to shallow water. Because water shielded harmful radiation, that’s where life existed. Eventually, a thicker ozone layer enabled life to diversify on land.
- About 541 million years ago, hard-shelled invertebrates originated in the oceans, and life got more diverse.
Age of fish
When thousands of fish species arose, plants and fungi were the first to venture out of the water. Some fish stayed close to land and gradually adapted to life there, developing lungs.
Amphibians were the first vertebrates to make the move tool. The transition to life on land benefitted these creatures because there were no predators, and food was plentiful. That was the start of the Age of Amphibians. Then 250 million years ago was the Permian extinction, which caused 95% of all living species.
Age of dinosaur
When Earth’s climate became hotter and drier, rainforests collapsed, triggering the age of reptiles. It was unanimously depicted by tyrannosaurus Rex locked in eternal conflict with the mortal enemy because reptiles evolved to dryland conditions. They gained a unique ecological advantage.
Also notable is that Pangaea existed as one supercontinent in this area. Dinosaurs lived on one supercontinent. Plate tectonics is a worthy mechanism that eventually tore continents apart. Don’t forget that dinosaurs existed for 160 million years. So continental drift gradually drifted dinosaurs apart.
From between the feet of stomping dinosaurs, ratty animals scurry about cue an asteroid impact, and the age of mammals begins. Mammals evolved from mammal-like reptiles called therapsids about 200 million years ago. Birds from small theropod dinosaurs came about 150 million years ago. This evolution of mammals and birds accelerated after the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
A six-mile-wide asteroid struck Earth off the Yucatan Peninsula. It ejected vast quantities of particulate matter and vapor into the air that occluded sunlight, inhibiting photosynthesis. Seventy-five percent of all life, including the non-avian dinosaurs, became extinct.
The first true mammals evolved in the shadows of dinosaurs and other large arcus ores. When dinosaurs roamed the earth, mammals were tiny and were probably nocturnal to escape predation. Because dinosaurs went extinct, mammals emerged as the largest land animals. Creatures like ambulocetus took the oceans to eventually evolve into whales, whereas some creatures like primates took to the trees.
Then several million years ago, we believe human life began to evolve. Apes remained in trees as their primary food source. Eventually, grass began to spread in places like the African savanna, with fewer trees. It forced Apes to walk to new food sources. With their heads above the grass to see predators, apes evolved by walking on two legs. It also helped to have their hands available when they were traveling.
Brain size increased rapidly, and by two million years ago, the first animals classified in the genus Homo had appeared. They were known for sharpening objects with silicon rocks. They began to master the use of their hands and fingers. In the Stone Age, early humans had the fire under control.
It enabled them to cook their food, giving them more calories. Modern Sapiens learned to make more complex sounds and share information in groups. They are believed to have originated around 200,000 years ago or earlier in Africa. The oldest fossils date back to around 160 thousand years ago. Since then, humans have struggled to survive.
“Age of the Earth.” U.S. Geological Survey.
Dalrymple, G. Brent. “The Age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved.” Special Publications, Geological Society of London.
Claude J.; Bernard & Hamelin, Bruno. “Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle characteristics.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
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