When you toss an apple up in the air, it falls back to the ground. In fact, anything that goes up comes back down. But when we look at the moon up in the sky, many questions come to mind. Why doesn’t the moon fall off the sky?
Scientists estimate that our moon is approximately 4.53 billion years old. It means that it came into being only 60 million years after the solar system itself. So what is keeping the moon from falling on Earth for billions of years? The answer is gravity and the shape of the Earth. Everything in our solar system is in its place due to gravity.
Gravity attracts masses to the center of the earth, which translates to force. That pulls an apple to the ground. It is the same force that makes the moon orbit earth. Gravity is not just a force but a geometric property that describes space-time Einstein found out that space and time are one thing space-time. The warping of space-time is what we feel is gravity.
Why doesn’t moon fall on earth?
All the planets, the sun, and the distant stars in galaxies located billions of light-years away all have an attractive force due to their mass. So these large bodies attract other smaller and larger bodies towards them. Sun is around 1.3 million times bigger than our Earth has powerful gravity. And it attracts every other celestial body in our solar system towards it.
Similarly, Earth attracts the moon towards it. Planet Earth is almost a perfectly round body. And as its gravity pulls the moon towards it, the moon does get pulled towards its center. So actually, the moon is constantly falling on Earth. But it is moving so fast that it never gets to hit Earth. To explain this simply, let’s just take the example of a tennis ball thrown in the air.
When you throw a tennis ball with little force aimed at an angle of 45 degrees, the ball falls a little farther than you. But when you throw it faster, it travels much more distance, but it eventually hits the ground. The more the ball’s speed is, the more distance it will travel before hitting the ground.
The moon is located at a distance of three hundred and eighty-four thousand four hundred kilometers away. So the force of gravity on the moon is much less than it is on a tennis ball or any other object here on Earth. Also, the moon is traveling horizontally at a very fast speed.
As the Earth pulls it down, it keeps moving horizontally, which keeps it revolving around Earth in orbit instead of making it fall. The same is the case with the satellites that we send in space. Scientists launch them into space after carefully calculating the speed required at a particular height above Earth to keep the satellite rotating around Earth. Then that satellite is moved at that speed, and the rest is done by gravity. As gravity pulls the satellite down, its horizontal motion and Earth’s round shape allow it to move in an orbit instead of falling.
A name for these forces keeps a body revolving around another body in a circular motion. These forces are known as centripetal and centrifugal forces. Centripetal force is the force that is directed inward towards the center of rotation. And centrifugal force is an apparent force that is felt by an object moving in a curved path.
Centrifugal force acts outwardly away from the center of rotation. So when the centripetal force, which is gravity, is pulling the moon in towards Earth. Also, the Centrifugal force is moving it away from Earth and giving it its horizontal motion.
The moon has been revolving around Earth for billions of years, and the chances are that it will continue to do so for billions of more years unless something unusual happens. It causes the moon to move away from Earth or fall on Earth. It can be due to being hit by a huge asteroid or some other large celestial body coming close to it due to some mysterious space events. But that is something unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future, and we do not need to worry! So the moon isn’t falling on Earth.
Gravity or curved space doesn’t always make things fall in. Sometimes objects are in orbit as the Moon around the Earth. The Moon is like a giant marble. Einstein’s concept: that matter curves space around it also determines how objects move around massive objects, like the Moon around the Earth or the Earth around the Sun.
Why does the Moon orbit the Earth? Because space is curved around Earth, too. How fast objects move through space due to gravity and how much space is curved at any point depends on two things.
- How much mass the central object has.
- Distance from the center of that massive object.
Close to the stars, space is curved more than it is out here, where space is curved less.
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