Cain explains that German Astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers first asked the question in 1823. It’s known as Olber’s Paradox and states that if the universe is infinite, static, and timeless, then the night sky should be lousy with stars. Though night sky is more connect to the dots than pointillism.
Edwin Hubble solved the paradox in 1929. He observed that everywhere he looked in the universe. All the stars’ spectrums were slightly red, meaning the light coming from them was being stretched out. It means the space itself light was traveling through was expanding.
Ergo, the universe isn’t static, and there must be stars that are so far away. Their light just hasn’t had time to reach yet. It means that the farther away something is, the faster the space between it and us is stretching out. After a huge enough distance, space will be stretching out faster than light can close the gap.
If the universe is all expanding away from everything else, it stands to reason that it was all clumped together if you go far back enough. This is where the theory of the big bang comes in. The expansion of space solves the riddle. In 1964 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were working on an unrelated experiment with a radio telescope, and they couldn’t shake this weird, unwanted static.
After ensuring everything was functioning correctly, even cleaning the antennae inside for bird droppings for hours, they realized that the signal was coming from everywhere. And nobody can’t stop the signal. They concluded that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation must have been the light from the big bang. But it had been stretched out after billions of years until it was low-energy microwaves that our eyes couldn’t see.
Why is space black?
Galaxies aren’t a solid light source. These light sources are dimmer. They appear as less light from that source reaches our eyes because of the inverse-square law. The light’s intensity depends on the source’s radius because the further the light has to travel, the more it spreads out over a larger surface area. It means the observer observes the intensity is reducing.
However, if people lived in an infinite, static universe, a universe with endless stars, no expansion, and no beginning or end, the entire sky wouldn’t be black. But instead as bright as the surface of a star, or even infinitely bright. This concept is known as Olber’s Paradox. It wouldn’t matter where you looked in the sky, in an infinite universe.
What about clouds and dust that would obscure the view of background stars? These will also be as bright as stars as they receive and reflect so much light in an infinite universe. It is one of the grand evidence that the universe is not everlasting but has a beginning and so probably also an end. It is also evidence of the expansion of the universe.
- The Hubble Constant has shown that the universe expands at roughly 70km/s every 1 megaparsec.
The universe likely has an age of roughly 13.8 billion years. It is dynamic and expanding. It means that there is a sphere around us on Earth that we can’t see beyond. Galaxies are beyond that sphere are moving away from us faster than the speed of light.
It means that even with a telescope capable of infinite magnification, there would be patches of space in the sky containing nothing from the human perspective. Distant galaxies become redder due to the stretching of light wavelengths through the universe’s expansion, in a process known as redshift. The redshift of galaxies can become so extreme that light was emitted in the visible light spectrum. Billions of light-years away are stretched so much that it eventually reaches us in the form of infrared wavelengths beyond our eye’s capabilities to see.
Scientific explanation: Human eyes are well adapted to life on Earth, during the day anyway. The Sun gives an excellent level of light. So, therefore, everything around us is beautiful colors. At night, it is dark because the light of the Sun is no longer there. Each one of the stars is kind of like a Sun in its location.
If all the stars are given off all this light, then why is the space so black? We should probably explain why the earth has so much light and color to figure out this answer. The earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that contains gas, water, dust, and dirt. When the light of the Sun hits any of these objects, it scatters or bounces off. It is a Rayleigh Scattering process that makes the sky blue during the day. This causes us to see the various colors.
- Eyes can only detect light in a tiny portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, but most of the light isn’t even within this portion of the spectrum.
So, It is the atmosphere that gives the ability to see the light and the colors. And this scattering effect lets us see the blue sky and the gorgeous tones of the sunrise and the sunset. Space does have gas and cosmic dust, but it doesn’t have any atmosphere. Light will travel in a straight line until it hits something. The surrounding space appears black because there isn’t a strong enough atmosphere to cause the scattering effect.
The light from the stars at the farthest end of the galaxy will take longer to reach our eyes than those closer to the earth because light travels at a constant speed. So as the universe keeps on expanding, the wavelength of light gets longer and longer. Therefore, we have less visible light until there is no light that we can see.
How dark is space?
Scientists want to know how dark space is. And can that tell us something about the number of galaxies in the visible universe? Nasa is using the new horizon spacecraft to figure out just how dark space is. When you look up at the night sky away from city lights, the space between stars appears very dark. Outside the earth’s atmosphere, outer space gets even darker.
Space is not black. The universe is lit by a faint glow of countless distant stars and galaxies. But it’s not easy to measure this glow. Like the Hubble space telescope, satellites and telescopes inside our solar system cannot correctly calculate the light emitted. Dust and particles illuminated by the sun fill the region around the earth and the inner solar system. This creates a diffuse glow in the sky.
Scientists have to use a spacecraft outside our solar system to measure that faint glow that fills the universe. A team of scientists has used observations by NASA’s new horizons mission to pluto and the Kuiper belt to determine this cosmic optical background’s brightness. New Horizons is currently very far from all significant light pollution sources, billions of kilometers from earth. The surrounding sky is, therefore, about 10 times darker than the darkest sky visible to Hubble. It enables the probe to take much more accurate measurements.
- Why Is The Sky Red At Night, Sunrise & Sunset
- Why Is The Space Cold
- Is The Sky Really Blue Color
- Why Clouds Are White Color
- Why Moon Turns Red Color
“Space – Physics and Metaphysics.” Encyclopædia Britannica.
Refer to Plato’s Timaeus in the Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University, and his reflections on Khora.
Carnap, R. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. New York: Dove. (Original edition: Philosophical Foundations of Physics. New York: Basic Books).
Space from Zeno to Einstein: classic readings with a contemporary commentary. Huggett, Nick.
Janiak, Andrew. “Space and Motion in Nature and Scripture: Galileo, Descartes, Newton.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.