Cloning is the method of producing a genetically identical copy of a living organism. It can be done on many scales, from replicating basic DNA to a complete genetic copy. Human cloning is popular science fiction. Cloning involves creating a genetically identical copy of a living thing, but that copy doesn’t just appear fully grown in a magical box. It has to start as we all do. As a fertilized egg that develops in the womb, the clone baby is born and grows up at an average rate.
It happens naturally in about 0.3 percent of births producing identical twins. But those are looking numbers if we want to realize our dreams of galactic domination. What we need is artificial cloning. Research has made some pretty impressive inroads.
Could we clone humans?
Using a somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, genetic engineers take the DNA containing the nucleus from one of the cells and inject it into an egg cell with its nucleus removed. The egg is implanted in the womb and develops using the genes and instructions in the transplanted nucleus to create an identical copy.
- Cloned human embryos are already being used for what’s known as therapeutic cloning to produce stem cells.
Those are compatible with the donor’s body to help treat diseases. It allows the human embryos to develop into living, breathing human copies is called reproductive cloning. It would help when prospective parents couldn’t produce their eggs and sperm or carry a recessive genetic disease.
Back in 1996, Dolly, the sheep, was born the first mammal to be cloned in this way. As a result, she became the poster child for nuclear transfer and the basis of our hopes of future cloning efforts. Since then, scientists have cloned a whole range of other animals, including cats, dear, dogs, horses, rabbits, and rats.
Japanese researchers have even managed to produce clones from clones creating 26 generations of healthy mice totaling nearly 600 identical copies from a single individual. With making copies of living creatures, advanced techniques are being pioneered to cut and paste DNA to revive long-dead animals or even bring back extinct species.
- Scientists are attempting to use a method of genetic editing called CRISPR cas9.
To insert fundamental bits of wooly mammoth DNA recovered from 28 thousand-year-old frozen mammoth bodies into the eggs of elephants. Surrogate elephant mums then give birth to babies with all the physical attributes of mammoth-like coarse red hair and extra insulating fat, allowing them to survive in colder conditions. With this firm scientific foundation, it would seem that we could soon be seeing clones on every corner.
The Oregon Health and Science University team made an embryonic clone of a human from a person’s skin cells and donated eggs. Then they harvested working stem cells from that embryo. The technique they used is called somatic cell nuclear transfer. It’s the same way Dolly the sheep was made. Basically, the nucleus of a mature cell, a fetal skin cell, is put into a human egg that’s had its nucleus taken out. And then, they stimulate the egg, and it starts to divide and grow.
When it hits about 100 cells, called the blastocyst stage, it has many embryonic stem cells in it that scientists can harvest. The stimulating is the hard part. Coaxing an embryo to grow easily consistently and without complications has been the major roadblock holdings CNT back. So how did the Oregon team make it work? Caffeine!
Adding caffeine to the chemical mixture used to stimulate cells made them divided properly just about every time. The cells they harvested from the embryos were able to be turned into everything. They tried to recreate, including beating heart muscle cells.
So, can we clone humans now with that embryo that has developed into a person? The team says no! They are using techniques that they perfected on monkeys in 2007, and none of those embryos could survive into maturity.
Scientists have cloned a non-human primate. One of the biggest struggles with cloning primates has to do with spindle proteins. They’re crucial in cell division and development. In humans, they reside in the nucleus of an egg. So, when the nucleus is removed to make room for the new DNA, those spindle proteins are removed. It makes embryonic development that much harder.
Many cloned animals suffer from defective brains, hearts, and livers, and immune system problems. Their chromosomes shrink quicker, meaning cellular aging happens faster than normal too. So clone could be sick and die prematurely, and the clone could have a completely different personality.
Humans cloning possibilities
For this reason, cloning could conceivably be seen as part of the fundamental human right to have children. But the other side of the story is much, much darker. If human cloning were on the cards, it could open up Pandora’s box of moral and ethical dilemmas. Coning technologies could also pave the way for recreating copies of people who have died, perhaps replacing a child after an accident or illness. It could be created solely for supplying organs and tissues.
Removing the original nucleus from the egg, for instance, is easier to do with some animals than others, easier with cats and mice, harder with dogs and rats, and hard for humans. Pulling the nucleus out also pulls out a bunch of proteins that are important for cell division. Without these, the egg can’t develop beyond a single cell. These proteins are far enough away from the nucleus for cats and mice to be less in the egg. But with humans, they’re so close that current techniques are just not delicate enough to pick out one without the other.
Even if we did manage to do this and successfully transfer a nucleus to develop it into a cloned child. That child will not be likely to live an entire, healthy life until we could solve the problem of accelerated cell aging. Every time a cell divides, the ends of the DNA containing chromosomes called telomeres to shrink a little bit.
After many divisions, they become so short that they can’t divide anymore, and the cell dies. It’s a natural process, but when you transplant a nucleus that’s already been through a bunch of divisions. So until we can find a way to extend telomeres and give chromosomes a new lease of life, human cloning problems will be moral ones and medical ones. So perhaps human cloning is a good way out of reach, and maybe that’s a good thing.
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